The Endocannabinoid System
Therapeutic mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids have still not been fully been investigated yet, but they are known to work through the human endocannabinoid system which consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid metabolism (Battista et al., 2006). Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids which activate receptors. The endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are located in the central and peripheral nervous system, retina, lymphatic and blood vessels, digestive tract, lung tissue, etc. (Pertwee, 1999; Kaur et al., 2016). CB1 receptors are usually found on the nerves and CB2 are on the immune cells.
The Endocannabinoid System (Kaur et al., 2016)
It is believed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of such functions and processes as cognitive functions, sleep, anxiety, depression, appetite, addiction, neuroprotection, reproductive functions (fertility, embryo implantation and development), cardiac activity and vasodilation, energy production and balance, peristalsis, endocrine and barrier functions of the intestine, immunomodulation, nausea and vomiting, eye pressure, bronchodilation, development of cancer, bone remodeling, etc. (Zou S., et al., 2018).
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Kaur R, Ambwani SR, Singh S. Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2016;11(2):110-7.
Zou S, Kumar U. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. Int J Mol Sci 2018;13:19(3).